Columbia University

              The best teachers embrace the future by trusting the student, supporting the growth of something that cannot be seen yet, an emergent sensibility that cannot be judged by contemporary standards. A school dedicated to the unique life and impact of the thoughtful architect must foster a way of thinking that draws on everything that is known in order to jump into the unknown, trusting the formulations of the next generation that by definition defy the logic of the present. Education becomes a form of optimism that gives our field a future by trusting the students to see, think, and do things we cannot. The Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation (GSAPP) has evolved over more than a century, beginning with the establishment of a program in architecture at Columbia College in l88l — one of the first such professional programs in the country. While the number of specialized programs being offered by the school has multiplied over the years, architecture remains the intellectual core of the school, providing the central focus for more than half of the students and faculty, in addition to conferring a unique identity onto each of the other affiliated programs. All programs share a commitment to both professional training and research. The curriculum and philosophy stress the necessity of analyzing and challenging the underlying history, premises, and future directions of the design professions, even as students are prepared to become accomplished practitioners in their respective fields of specialization. This kind of optimism is crucial at a school like the GSAPP at Columbia. The students arrive in New York City from around 55 different countries armed with an endless thirst for experimentation. It is not enough for us to give each of them expertise in the current state-of-the-art in architecture so that they can decisively assert themselves around the world by producing remarkable buildings, plans, and policies. We also have to give them the capacity to change the field itself, to completely redefine the state-of-the-art. More than simply training architects how to design brilliantly, we redesign the figure of the architect. Columbia’s leadership role is to act as a laboratory for testing new ideas about the possible roles of designers in a global society. The goal is not a certain kind of architecture but a certain evolution in architectural intelligence. Architecture is a set of endlessly absorbing questions for our society rather than a set of clearly defined objects with particular effects. Architects are public intellectuals, crafting forms that allow others to see the world differently and perhaps to live differently. The real gift of the best architects is to produce a kind of hesitation in the routines of contemporary life, an opening in which new potentials are offered, new patterns, rhythms, moods, sensations, pleasures, connections, and perceptions. The architect’s buildings are placed in the city like the books of a thoughtful novelist might be placed in a newsstand in a railway station, embedding the possibility of a rewarding detour amongst all the routines, a seemingly minor detour that might ultimately change the meaning of everything else. The architect crafts an invitation to think and act differently. GSAPP likewise cultivates an invitation for all the disciplines devoted to the built environment to think differently. Its unique mission is to move beyond the highest level of professional training to open a creative space within which the disciplines can rethink themselves, a space of speculation, experimentation, and analysis that allows the field to detour away from its default settings in order to find new settings, new forms of professional, scholarly, technical, and ethical practice. The heart of this open-ended laboratory is the design studios. All the overlapping and interacting programs at the school-Architecture, Urban Design, Historic Preservation, Urban Planning, and Real Estate Development-teach design and are united in their commitment to the global evolution of the 21st century city. Every semester, the school launches more than 35 explorative studio projects that head off in different directions before reporting back their findings in juries, exhibitions, and publications that stimulate an intense debate and trigger a new round of experiments. With a biodiversity of continually evolving research trajectories, the school operates as a multi-disciplinary think tank, an intelligent organism thinking its way through the uncertain future of the discipline and the global society it serves. As in any other architecture school, the real work is done in the middle of the night. Avery Hall, the school’s neo-classical home since 1912–with its starkly defined symmetrical proportions communicating to the world the old belief that the secret of architectural quality is known, universal, and endlessly repeatable–now acts as the late night incubator of a diversity of possible futures. At its base is Avery Library, the most celebrated architectural collection in the world, a remarkable container of everything architects have been thinking about in the past, neatly gathered within the traditional quiet space of a well organized archive. Up above are the dense and chaotic studio spaces bristling with electronics and new ideas. Somewhere between the carefully catalogued past and the buzz of the as yet unclassifiable future, the discipline evolves while everyone else sleeps. Having been continuously radiated by an overwhelming array of classes and waves of visiting speakers, symposia, workshops, exhibitions, and debates, the students artfully rework the expectations of their discipline. The pervasive atmosphere at GSAPP, the magic in the air from the espresso bar to the pin-up walls to the front steps to the back corner of the big lecture hall, is the feeling of being on the cutting edge, straddling the moving border between the known and the unknown in our field. It is hopefully an open questioning atmosphere in which students are able to do work that teaches their teachers. In the end, a school’s most precious gift is its generosity towards the thoughts that the next generation has yet to have.

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Yale University

                   The task of architecture is the creation of human environments. It is both an expression of human values and a context for human activity. Through the design process, architecture addresses the interrelated environmental, behavioral, and cultural issues that underlie the organization of built form. The student of architecture is called upon to direct sensitivity, imagination, and intellect to the physical significance of these fundamental issues in designing a coherent environment for people. Architectural design as a comprehensive creative process is the focus of the Yale School of Architecture.
              The School adopts as basic policy a pluralistic approach to the teaching of architecture. Students have opportunities to become well acquainted with a wide range of contemporary design approaches. The School does not seek to impose any single design philosophy, but rather encourages in each student the development of discernment and an individual approach to design.
              The Yale School of Architecture offers graduate-level professional education and advanced research opportunities in architecture and allied design fields. An undergraduate major in architecture is offered exclusively to Yale College students. In order to further the pursuit of a variety of interests within the study of architecture, the curriculum offers opportunities for study in several interrelated fields.
                For the programs leading to the degrees of Master of Architecture, the design studio is paramount in the School’s curriculum, emphasizing the interrelationships between purpose, design, competition, collaboration, innovation, and open discussion in an environment that values risk-taking and experimentation. The design studio is a workshop in which students come together to present and discuss projects and proposals with fellow classmates, faculty, visiting critics, professionals, and the public. The design studio combines individual and group instruction, varying from desk critiques with individual faculty members, to pin-ups before several faculty members, to more formal midterm and final reviews before faculty and guest critics—all undertaken with the intention of fostering critical thinking, spatial form-making skills, and tectonic skills. Education in the design studio values leadership skills, individual creativity, and the understanding of problems and the ability to solve them as presented in the practice of architecture. The School of Architecture’s mandate is for each student to understand architecture as a creative, productive, innovative, and responsible practice.
                  In addition to the design studios, courses in design and visualization, technology and practice, history and theory, and urbanism and landscape serve as a basis for developing a comprehensive approach to architectural design.
The area of design and visualization encompasses required studios, option studios, electives that concentrate on design logic and skills, and courses that support design thinking and representation.
                 Technology courses explore, as an integral part of the architectural design process, the physical context; the properties of natural forces; and building systems. In the area of practice, courses are concerned with issues related to the professional context of architecture and its practices and, in particular, with the architect’s responsibility for the built environment.
                  Courses in history and theory examine attitudes concerning the design of buildings, landscapes, and cities that may contribute to a design process responsive to its broadest social and cultural context.
Courses in urbanism and landscape address the study of aesthetic, economic, political, and social issues that influence large-scale environments. This area deals with the relation of buildings to their urban contexts and natural environments.
                  Direct experience of contemporary and historical architecture and urbanism as well as firsthand contact with experts in various fields is an important part of the School’s educational mission. To this end, many studios and classes incorporate both domestic and international travel as part of their course work. In addition, an intensive drawing course is offered each summer in Rome, Italy.
                   Urban studies are also supported through the extracurricular programs of the Yale Urban Design Workshop and Center for Urban Design Research. Students in the School of Architecture may participate with faculty and students from the School and throughout the University in the symposia, seminars, and research and design projects organized through these programs. In particular, the Urban Design Workshop extends the work of the School into the areas of community design and outreach, providing design assistance to groups and municipalities throughout the region (see Yale Urban Design Workshop, in the chapter Life at the School of Architecture).
                The diversity of course offerings in the School, therefore, represents a concern for design that ranges in scale from the individual building to the urban landscape. Students are also encouraged to take courses in other departments and schools in the University..
                Advanced studies and research in architecture and urbanism are supported throughout the curriculum, but they are a primary focus in the M.E.D. and post-professional (M.Arch. II) programs. The M.E.D. program provides opportunities for exceptionally qualified students to pursue advanced research in architecture and urbanism through course work and independent studies guided by faculty from the School and the University. Emphasis is placed on rigorous methods of research and scholarship leading to a substantial written thesis. In the post-professional M.Arch. program, advanced studies in architecture and urbanism are supported by course work and design studios.

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Princeton University

             The study of architecture at Princeton University began in 1832 with a course taught by Professor Joseph Henry, an amateur architect and scientist who later became the first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. The course, which covered the history of architecture including the classification of architecture, styles, and marbles, was the first humanities course taught at the College. Henry lectured on the subject until 1837, after which faculty members from various disciplines offered the course on a sporadic basis. The study of architecture continued informally throughout the latter part of the 1870s and into the 1880s.

              The formal study of architecture returned in 1882 when the Department of Art and Archaeology was founded and Professor Allan Marquand offered a course in the history of Christian architecture. A course on the elements of architecture and historical drawing was offered beginning in 1902, and professional design courses were added to the curriculum in 1915. In the same year a committee was formed to investigate the formation of a School of Architecture. Arrangements had been made to open a School of Architecture in the fall of 1917, but World War I delayed the official opening of the School until 1919.

                As the School expanded, more space was required, and a new School of Architecture building was constructed on land adjacent to the Department of Art and Archaeology and the Art Museum. The building, dedicated in October 1963, housed drafting rooms, a freehand drawing room, a classroom, a seminar room, an exhibition gallery, faculty offices with preceptorial areas, a faculty conference room, the Dean’s office, and the Winton Reading Room. In addition, there was space for the offices of the Center of Urban Research and a large sculpture studio and outdoor exhibition court for the Creative Arts Program.
                  In 2007, the School completed construction of its first significant addition since the building was constructed in 1962. Designed by the New York firm of ARO (Stephen Cassell ’86 and Adam Yarinsky ’87), this three story glass and steel pavilion houses a new elevator and public stair, entry lobby, and student lounge space. Through associated program upgrades, the School added new facilities to the building, including a model-making workshop and digital fabrication equipment. Precisely detailed and constructed, the new addition serves as an example of the School’s commitment to design excellence.

                Although the School of Architecture has expanded its facility, faculty, and student body over the years, it retains a small size that encourages close contact between faculty members, graduate students, and undergraduates. From the beginning, the School of Architecture’s curriculum has always responded to changes in the profession and in architectural education, providing students with courses that reflect contemporary and emerging issues in architecture. Within this flexible academic framework, the School of Architecture has remained committed to its original goals: providing undergraduates with a well-rounded liberal arts education and a strong basis for additional studies in architecture, and offering graduate students a comprehensive education in design, technology, and the history and theories of architecture.

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Teachers

      

            The teacher is very impottant for the students, because teacher is a very special group, their duty is to take care of the next general of humans.  They teach the tecnologies, and how to be a good citizen.

       Teaching may be carried out informally, within the family which is called home schooling (see Homeschooling) or the wider community. Formal teaching may be carried out by paid professionals. Such professionals enjoy a status in some societies on a par with physicians, lawyers, engineers, and accountants (Chartered or CPA).

              A teacher’s professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching. Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, and serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline.

                 Around the world teachers are often required to obtain specialized education, knowledge, codes of ethics and internal monitoring.

There are a variety of bodies designed to instill, preserve and update the knowledge and professional standing of teachers. Around the world many governments operate teacher’s colleges, which are generally established to serve and protect the public interest through certifying, governing and enforcing the standards of practice for the teaching profession.

The functions of the teacher’s colleges may include setting out clear standards of practice, providing for the ongoing education of teachers, investigating complaints involving members, conducting hearings into allegations of professional misconduct and taking appropriate disciplinary action and accrediting teacher education programs. In many situations teachers in publicly funded schools must be members in good standing with the college, and private schools may also require their teachers to be college peoples. In other areas these roles may belong to the State Board of Education, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the State Education Agency or other governmental bodies. In still other areas Teaching Unions may be responsible for some or all of these duties.

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School

                 As we know, school is a place for us tolearn the things we don’t know.  So, apprently, it’s very vital for us.

                 For the concept of “schooling”, see Education. For other uses of the word “school”, see School (disambiguation) or Educational institution.
 
                 Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below), but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught, is commonly called a university college or university.

                   In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also attend schools before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3–5). University, vocational school, college or seminary may be available after secondary school. A school may also be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods.

                    There are also non-government schools, called private schools. Private schools may be for children with special needs when the government does not supply for them; religious, such as Christian schools, hawzas, yeshivas, and others; or schools that have a higher standard of education or seek to foster other personal achievements. Schools for adults include institutions of corporate training and Military education and training.           

              The concept of grouping students together in a centralized location for learning has existed since Classical antiquity. Formal schools have existed at least since ancient Greece (see Academy), ancient Rome (see Education in Ancient Rome) ancient India and ancient China (see History of education in China). The Byzantine Empire had an established schooling system beginning at the primary level. According to Traditions and Encounters, the founding of the primary education system began in 425 A.D. The Byzantine education system continued until the empire’s collapse in 1453 AD.

                Islam was another culture that developed a school system in the modern sense of the word. Emphasis was put on knowledge, which required a systematic way of teaching and spreading knowledge, and purpose-built structures. At first, mosques combined both religious performance and learning activities, but by the ninth century, the Madrassa was introduced, a proper school that was built independently from the mosque. They were also the first to make the Madrassa system a public domain under the control of the Caliph. The Nizamiyya madrasa is considered by consensus of scholars to be the earliest surviving school, built towards 1066 CE by Emir Nizam Al-Mulk.
              Under the Ottomans, the towns of Bursa and Edirne became the main centers of learning. The Ottoman system of Kulliye, a building complex containing a mosque, a hospital, madrassa, and public kitchen and dining areas, revolutionized the education system, making learning accessible to a wider public through its free meals, health care and sometimes free accommodation.

 
                One-room school in 1935, AlabamaThe nineteenth century historian, Scott holds that a remarkable correspondence exists between the procedure established by those institutions and the methods of the present day. They had their collegiate courses, their prizes for proficiency in scholarship, their oratorical and poetical contests, their commencements and their degrees. In the department of medicine, a severe and prolonged examination, conducted by the most eminent physicians of the capital, was exacted of all candidates desirous of practicing their profession, and such as were unable to stand the test were formally pronounced incompetent.

                   In Europe during the Middle Ages and much of the Early Modern period, the main purpose of schools (as opposed to universities) was to teach the Latin language. This led to the term grammar school, which in the United States informally refers to a primary school, but in the United Kingdom means a school that selects entrants based on ability or aptitude. Following this, the school curriculum has gradually broadened to include literacy in the vernacular language as well as technical, artistic, scientific and practical subjects.

            Nowadays, some schools offer remote access to their classes over the Internet. Online schools also can provide support to traditional schools, as in the case of the School Net Namibia. Some online classes provide experience in a class so that when you take it you have already been introduced to the subject and know what to expect, and even more classes provide High School/College credit allowing you to take the class at your own pace. Many online classes cost money to use but some are offered free.

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History of Education

                  The history of education is the history of teaching and learning. Each generation, since the beginning of human existence, has sought to pass on cultural and social values, traditions, morality, religion and skills to the next generation. The passing on of culture is also known as enculturation and the learning of social values and behaviours is socialization. The history of the curricula of such education reflects human history itself, the history of knowledge, beliefs, skills and cultures of humanity.

                  In pre-literate societies, education was achieved orally and through observation and imitation. The young learned informally from their parents, extended family and grand parents. At later stages of their lives, they received instruction of a more structured and formal nature, imparted by people not necessarily related, in the context of initiation, religion or ritual.As the customs and knowledge of ancient civilizations became more complex, many skills would have been learned from an experienced person on the job, in animal husbandry, agriculture, fishing, preparation and preservation of food, construction, stone work, metal work, boat building, the making of weapons and defensis, the military skills and many other occupations.

                 With the development of writing, it became possible for stories, poetry, knowledge, beliefs, and customs to be recorded and passed on more accurately to people out of earshot and to future generations. In many societies, the spread of literacy was slow; orality and illiteracy remained predominant for much of the population for centuries and even millennia. Literacy in preindustrial societies was associated with civil administration, law, long distance trade or commerce, and religion. A formal schooling in literacy was often only available to a small part of the population, either at religious institutions or for the wealthy who could afford to pay for their tutors. The earliest known universities, or places of higher education, started teaching a millennium or more ago.

                Universal education of all children in literacy has been a recent development, not occurring in many countries until after 1850 CE. Even today, in some parts of the world, literacy rates are below 60 per cent (for example, in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh). Schools, colleges and universities have not been the only methods of formal education and training. Many professions have additional training requirements, and in Europe, from the Middle Ages until recent times, the skills of a trade were not generally learnt in a classroom, but rather by serving an apprenticeship.

                 Nowadays, formal education consists of systematic instruction, teaching and training by professional teachers. This consists of the application of pedagogy and the development of curricula.

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Paper Airplane Design

              Before I decided which type of paper airplane I am going to design.  I did some research about how the airplane works.

               If you want to design an air plane, the most vital thing is to find the principle of how it flies.  So, the aerodynamics is apprently impotant.

          Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving object. Aerodynamics is a subfield of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, with much theory shared between them. Aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, with the difference being that gas dynamics applies to all gases. Understanding the motion of air (often called a flow field) around an object enables the calculation of forces and moments acting on the object. Typical properties calculated for a flow field include velocity, pressure, density and temperature as a function of position and time. By defining a control volume around the flow field, equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy can be defined and used to solve for the properties. The use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical approximations, wind tunnel experimentation, and computer simulations form the scientific basis for heavier-than-air flight.

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