The shoulder pads
Shoulder pads are a piece of protective equipment used in many contact sports such as American football, Canadian football, lacrosse and hockey. Most modern shoulder pads consist of a shock absorbing foam material with a hard plastic outer covering. The pieces are usually secured by rivets or strings that the user can tie to adjust the size.
Properly fitting pads are critical. Shoulder pads are fitted to an adult football player by measuring across the player’s back from shoulder blade to shoulder blade with a soft cloth tape measure and then adding 1/2 inch. All points of the pads should be checked to assure proper fit. Maintenance during football season includes monthly checks and replacing worn parts.
Various styles of shoulder pads exist for different positions played. Pads for a quarterback are lightweight and offer freedom of movement. Pads for linemen are designed with few flaps and epaulets, thus reducing the opportunity of being grabbed by the opposition.
The way I think to improve the protective ability of shoulder pads.
Beacuse the shoulder pads are very heavy. Players used a large amount of energy to sustain the mass of shoulder pads. Also because people use shoulders pads to protect every place of the body, the organs, it affects the flexibility of players. Then we can find that there are two pathways for us to improve the feature of shoulder pads.
- The first one way is to change the materials of the shoulder pads. With the innovation of tecnology. There are so many kinds of materials we can choose. Like the High Impact Polystyrene.
- The second way is to change the structure of the shoulder pads. According to ergonology. I find that if we adapt the struture of Pagolin. Therewould be more pieces of pads ,bu not affect it’s flexibility.
This is a part of my paper airplane project. As you know, whether the airplane could fly or fly higher or farther depends on the structure of the airplane and the materials of the plane. Like, for the real airplanes, airplanes are made of composite materials. this is because composites have high tensile strength, light in weight, resistant to corrosion and can easily be worked to any shape. The fundamental principles of paper airplanes are analogous with the real airplanes. So, this part is about the materials of making paper airplanes.
Here are my research about the materials we used to build a paper airplane.
This is about my paper airplane project. I did the research of airplanes first, includeing some fundamental stuff, and then, I searched some kinds of airplanes for different competetion. At last, I choosed three kinds of paper airplanes, then I did the tests, and made some modifications. And then I found some pathways of making it flying further or staying in sky longer. I am going to show you with the following pictures.
These are about my my three kinds of paper airplane and their testing logs.
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The process of Boeing-747
The Pratt & Whitney JT9D high-bypass turbofan engine was developed for the 747.One of the principal technologies that enabled an aircraft as large as the 747 to be conceived was the high-bypass turbofan engine. The engine technology was thought to be capable of delivering double the power of the earlier turbojets while consuming a third less fuel. General Electric had pioneered the concept but was committed to developing the engine for the C-5 Galaxy and did not enter the commercial market until later. Pratt & Whitney was also working on the same principle and, by late 1966, Boeing, Pan-Am and Pratt & Whitney agreed to develop a new engine, designated JT9D, to power the 747.
The project was designed with a new methodology called fault tree analysis, which allowed the effects of a failure of a single part to be studied to determine its impact on other systems. To address concerns about safety and flyability, the 747’s design included structural redundancy, redundant hydraulic systems, quadruple main landing gear and dual control surfaces. Additionally, some of the most advanced high-lift devices used in the industry were included in the new design, in order to allow it to operate from existing airports. These included leading edge flaps running almost the entire length of the wing, as well as complex three-part slotted flaps along the rear. The wing’s complex three-part flaps increase wing area by 21% and lift by 90% when fully deployed compared to their nondeployed configuration.
How airplanes works
Lift is a force on a wing (or any other solid object) immersed in a moving fluid, and it acts perpendicular to the flow of the fluid. (Drag is the same thing, but acts parallel to the direction of the fluid flow). The net force is created by pressure differences brought about by variations in speed of the air at all points around the wing. These velocity variations are caused by the disruption and turning of the air flowing past the wing. The measured pressure distribution on a typical wing looks like the following diagram:
A. Air approaching the top surface of the wing is compressed into the air above it as it moves upward. Then, as the top surface curves downward and away from the airstream, a low-pressure area is developed and the air above is pulled downward toward the back of the wing.B. Air approaching the bottom surface of the wing is slowed, compressed and redirected in a downward path. As the air nears the rear of the wing, its speed and pressure gradually match that of the air coming over the top. The overall pressure effects encountered on the bottom of the wing are generally less pronounced than those on the top of the wing.C. Lift componentD. Net forceE. Drag component
When you sum up all the pressures acting on the wing (all the way around), you end up with a net force on the wing. A portion of this lift goes into lifting the wing (lift component), and the rest goes into slowing the wing down (drag component). As the amount of airflow turned by a given wing is increased, the speed and pressure differences between the top and bottom surfaces become more pronounced, and this increases the lift. There are many ways to increase the lift of a wing, such as increasing the angle of attack or increasing the speed of the airflow.
Pratt & Whitney JT9D high-bypass turbofan engine
Here is the website you can find more about Boeing-747
This condo floor design has two bedrooms and two washrooms but the position of washrooms are not good enough because if people who live in this condo want to use washroom they have to cross 4 doors. And it’s not convenient for not only hosters but also for guests. The position of living room should be changed with the bedroom in right side. So that the washroom in the left side can be used as main washroom. And the washroom in the right side can be used only for guests.
For this condo floor plan, it has one advantages and 1 main disadvantages. The adavantage is about the adaption of sunshine, if you make a straight from the front door to the opposite side of the floor plan, you will easily find that there are no barriers between two points, imagine you are in the house, if you can see the window when you stand in the front door’s position, it will make people feel the condo is much more bigger than it is. And the disadvantage is the design of balcony, because the balcony is too thin and too long, it’s more like a corridor, then it occupieds too much space.